Faculty & Staff bios

Arezoo Campbell, PhD

Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences

College of Pharmacy

E-Mail: acampbell@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-469-5240


Ph.D. (Toxicology) 1999
University of California Irvine

BS Biological Sciences  1994
BA Philosophy  1994
University of California Irvine 

Research Interest

 The main focus of the laboratory is to determine how aberrant induction of innate immune responses may accelerate the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Currently we are investigating the potential of particulate matter present in air pollution to trigger an inflammatory response in the CNS of chronically exposed animal models.

Another focus of the laboratory is to analyze the toxicity of metal nanoparticles.  Presently we are using human cell lines, derived from the CNS, to evaluate the potential toxicity of different forms of copper nanoparticles.  Oxidative stress is evaluated as a potential mechanism of toxicity.


Heusinkveld H.J., Wahle T., Campbell A., Westerink R.H.S., Tran L., Johnston H., Stone V., Cassee F.R., Schins R.P.F. (2016) Neurodegenerative and neurological disorders by small inhaled particles. NeuroToxicology. 56:94-106.

Solaimani P., Saffari A., Sioutas C., Campbell A. (2016) Exposure to airborne ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the expression of several noncoding RNAs and metallothioneins in primary human neurons. NeuroToxicology. 58:50-57.

Campbell A. & Solaimani P. 2016. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress & Age-Related Disease In: Inflammation, Aging, and Oxidative Stress (eds. Bondy S.C. & Campbell A.) Springer Nature, Humana Press, pp. 95-106.

Guerra R., Vera-Aguilar E., Uribe-Ramirez M., Gookin G., Camacho J., Osornio-Vargas A. R., Mugica-Alvarez V., Angulo-Olais R., Campbell A., Froines J., Kleinman T.M., De Vizcaya-Ruiz A. (2013) Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum. Toxicology Lett. 222:146-154.

Campbell A. (2014) Does Exposure to Air Pollution Contribute to Neurodegenerative Disease. Proceedings of the U.S.-Iran Symposium on Air Pollution in Megacities. Pg. 145-149: http://www.aaas.org/report/Iran-airpollution

Campbell A., Daher N., Solaimani P., Mendoza K., Sioutas C. (2014) Human Brain Derived Cells Respond in a Type-Specific Manner after Exposure to Urban Particulate Matter (PM). Toxicol. In Vitro. 28:1290-1295

Lung S., Cassee F.R., Gosens I., Campbell A. (2014) Brain Suppression of AP-1 by Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Reversal by Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles. Inhalation Toxicol. 26:636-641.

Shaligram S., Campbell A. (2013) Toxicity of copper salts is dependent on solubility profile and cell type tested. Toxicology in Vitro. 27: 844-851.

Campbell A., Sharman E., Bondy S.C. (2013) Age-related differences in the response of the brain to chronic dietary melatonin. AGE. DOI: 10.1007/s11357-013-9542-y

Lung, S. Li, H. Bondy S.C., Campbell A. (2013) Low concentrations of copper in drinking water increases AP-1 binding in the brain. Toxicology and Industrial Health. DOI: 10.1177/0748233713491805

Cassee F.R., Campbell A., Boere A.J., McLean S.G., Duffin R., Krystek P., Gosens I., Miller M.R. (2012) The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice. Environmental Research. 115:1-10.

Gerlofs-Nijland M., Berlo D., Cassee F., Schins R., Wang K., Campbell A. (2010) Effect of subchronic exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain. Particle & Fibre Toxicology. 7:12.

Campbell A., Wang K. (2009) Carbon-based nanoparticles and immune responses in the brain. J. Nanoneurosci. 1:116-119.

Campbell A., Araujo J.A., Li H., Sioutas C. Kleinman M. (2009) Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Nanoscience & Nanotechnology 9:5099-5104. 

Gerlofs-Nijland ME., Campbell A., Miller MR., Newby DE., Cassee FR. (2009) Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 151: 012049 

Muhankumar S.M., Campbell A., Block M., Veronesi B. (2008) Particulate matter, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity. NeuroToxicology. 29:479-488.