Faculty & Staff bios

Efrain Castellanos, OD, MS, FCOVD

Coordinator of Third Year Clinical Education, Assistant Professor

College of Optometry

E-Mail: ecastellanos@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-706-8254 | Fax: 909-706-3905

Website: www.westernu.edu

Join year: 2011


Master in Biomedical Science, 2008, Universidad Autonoma de Aguacalientes

Diplomate in Specialization in Vision and Development, 2006, Universidad de Morelos Facultad de Medicina, Division de Estudios de Postgrado e Investigacion

Licenciado en Optometria, 2003, Universidad Xochicalco


Fellow College of Optometry Vision Development (FCOVD), 2004, College of Optometry in Vision Development

Professional Experience

Clinical Director in Centro de Desarrollo Visual, 2003-2011, Mexicali B.C. Mexico

Instituto de la Vision Dr. Mendez, 2008-2011, Mexicali B.C. Mexico

President  of optometry  in Xochicalco University, 2007-2009, Mexicali B.C. Mexico 

President Optica Popular del Noroeste S.A. de C.V., 1998-2003, Mexicali B.C. Mexico 

President Junior Optical  S.A. de C.V., 1999-2003, Mexicali B.C. Mexico

Work Site

Centro de Desarrollo Visual, Mexicali, B.C. Mexico, Clinical Director

Instituto de la Vision Dr. Mendez, Mexicali, B.C. Mexico, Optometrist

Academic Interests

  • Behavioral Optometry
  • Binocular Vision
  • Pediatrics
  • Neuro-Optometry
  • Vision Therapy

Teaching Experience

Teacher in Binocular Vision and Pediatrics in de postgraduate program "Vision Function Specialist", 2010-2011, Instituto Politecnico Nacional CICS UMA

Academic Director  of  Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C., 2008- 2009

Teacher of the seminar, "Visual training of infants with low vision," 2007-2008, Universidad Ibero Americana, Torreon

Teacher at the College of Optometry, 2003-2010, Universidad Xochicalco - Subjects taught: Refraction, Binocular Vision, Contact Lenses, Low Vision, Orthoptics, Pediatrics

Instructor of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C, 2004-2011


Neuro-Optometry I: Strabismus and Amblyopia, College of Optometry

Behavioral Optometry: Diagnosis and Treatment, College of Optometry

Patient Care Services V: College of Optometry

Patient Care Services VI: College of Optometry

Patient Care Services VII: College of Optometry


As a professor I aim to share a theoretical and real world applicable knowledge of science and clinical skills that will allow students to develop a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s visual system. In order to meet the aforementioned goals, there is a need of using a variety of pedagogical practices to help students effectively comprehend the topics being taught.

I believe in the use of today’s electronic learning resources as a tool to facilitate the learning outcome as well as the dialogues on various social identities.

It is the responsibility of the professor to encourage in their students the respect for human dignity and the desire to contribute, through the study and intellectual growth, to improve the society to which he/she belongs.

The professor must be committed to help the student realize as a human being through self-discipline and developing the skills to think critically and independently. The professor responsibility includes developing self-sufficient individuals who are able to exercise their creative abilities.

The content of different subjects is an important means for developing reasoning skills and critical reflection, which helps students become aware of their values. According to the potential of each subject being taught is possible to implement procedures that will allow students to issue values to an object, action or person, from a pedagogical point of view.

The content of a curriculum is a means to an end because scientific truth today can be modified tomorrow, but the skills acquired to practice will last.

Scientific knowledge will allow the student to consciously assume essential values such ​​as authenticity, accuracy, creativity and justice.

Each topic being taught  and all activity that takes place in the university has a close relationship with the scale of values ​​that characterize each student and the group, the expectations they have of the subject, course, the race, their future work and its significance for society.

Therefore the professor must take into account the need to develop independent and critical thinking to different circumstances.

  • Promote the need to understand that technological development is only a means to human growth. 
  • To provide students with arguments and reference points that will help them understand the world around them and behave as a responsible and fair element.
  • Promote the possibility of having freedom of thought, opinion and imagination they need to reach their full potential. 
  • Stimulate each student to perform at their full potential.

The teacher should play a facilitator role since is critical for the student to play an active role in his academic learning. I will ensure a safe and inclusive environment by establishing ground rules for class discussions and having students  engaged  with the course materials, discussions, and class dynamics, facilitating the class participation in  exercises and activities that encourage students to think more deeply  always keeping in mind that some students are more visual learners while others are more conceptual or concrete.  

I intend to utilize my teaching skills and resources to empower students to provide a humanistic science based model of optometry practice.


Hoya House Cup Award, 2011, Western University of Health Sciences College of Optometry

Special Recognition for professional trajectory, 2011, Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional (OEP Mexico)

Naming of 2010 Optometry Generation, 2010, Universidad Xochicalco

Special Award for dedicated servce IECB, 2010, College of Optometrist in Vision Development

Arthur Martin Skeffington Award, 2004, Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional (OEP Mexico)


American Optometric Association

California Optometric Association

College Of Optometrist in Vision Development

Consejo Mexicano de Optometría Funcional A.C

Inland Empire Optometric Association

Optometric Extention Program Foundation


Clinical Education Group, Western University College of Optometry, 2012

Curriculum Committee, Western University College of Optometry, 2012

Chair Binocular Vision and Perception Educators, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, 2011

Chairman of the certification committee of Mexican Council of Certification in Optometry, 2010-2011  

Academic Director of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C., 2008-2009

International Examination and Certification Boardmember, College Of Optometrist In Vision  Development, 2007-2010

Member of the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education in Mexico, 2007-2010

Chairman of the certification committee, Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C. (COMOF), 2006-2011

Past President  of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C.( OEP MEXICO ),  2006-2007

Chairman of the health committee  of the  program “Ver bien para aprender mejor”, 2004-2011 


Efrain Castellanos

Vision and Learning

California Optometry  2013: 40: 46-50


Stefanie A. Drew1, Amy E. Escobar1, Chris Chase1, Chunming Liu1, Efrain Castellanos1, Lawrence Stark2 & Eric Borsting2

Accommodative lag is not predictive of Diminished reading speeds in natural settings

Poster presented at ARVO 2012 meeting


Amy E. Escobar1, Stefanie A. Drew1, Chris Chase1, Chunming Liu1, Efrain Castellanos1, Eric Borsting2, & Lawrence Stark2

Weak accommodation in asymptomatic young adults

Poster presented at ARVO 2012 meeting


Visual Discomfort in Graduate School Students Compared to College Students  

Chunming Liu1, Chris Chase1, Efrain Castellanos1, Stefanie Drew1, Amy Escobar1, Lawrence Stark2, Eric Borsting2.

Poster presented at ARVO 2012 meeting


Efrain Castellanos

Optometric Vision Therapy for Amblyopia

California Optometry  2011: 38: 36-42


Efrain Castellanos

Examining the pediatric patient

Optometry Today India  June 2011


Efrain Castellanos


Tercer congreso estatal  “ La Investigacion en el Posgrado”

Univesidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes 2007


Efrain Castellanos

¿Porque 20/20 no es suficiente?

Imagen optica  2007: 7


Efrain Castellanos

Modificacion al metodo Von Graefe

Imagen optica  2003 :  5