Faculty & Staff bios

Gerald Bales, PhD

Associate Professor of Anatomy

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

E-Mail: gbales@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-469-5249

Join year: July, 1996


Ph.D., Anatomy & Cell Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
Dissertation: A Multivariate Morphometric Study of Living and Fossil Rhinoceros Skulls.

M.A., Biological Sciences, California State University, Chico, CA
Master's Thesis: The Effects of Maternal Dietary Magnesium During Lactation On Adrenal and Thyroid Histology of Developing Rat Pups.

B.A., Biological Sciences, California State University, Chico, CA



Gross Anatomy; Histology; Neuroanatomy


  • 2014. Bales, GS. A semiquantitative approach to variation of the azygos vein course. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 27, Issue 7, pages 1030–1037, (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ca.22346/full)
  • 2004. Bales, G.S., Great cardiac vein variations. Clinical Anatomy 17 (5): 436-443.
  • 1996 - Bales, G.S., Skull evolution in the Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia;Perissodactyla): Cartesian transformations and functional interpretations. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 3 (3): 261-279.
  • 1996 - Bales, G.S., Heterochrony in brontothere horn evolution: allometric interpretations and the effect of life history scaling. Paleobiology 22 (4): 481-495.
  • 1983 - Buck, D.R. and Bales, J., Maternal dietary magnesium effects on lactation success and on milk yield and composition. Journal of Nutrition 113: 2421-2431