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Vishwanath Venketaraman, PhD


Associate Professor of Microbiology/Immunology

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

E-Mail: vvenketaraman@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-706-3736Join year: January 2008

Education

Ph.D., TB Immunology, Tuberculosis Research Center, Madras, India, 1996
M.S., Biology, University of Madras, Madras, India, 1991
B.S., Biology, University of Madras, Madras, India, 1989

Teaching Experience

Associate Professor, WesternU, COMP, GSBS, CDM, CPM, Pomona CA, 2013-present
Assistant Professor, WesternU, COMP, GCBS, CDM, CPM, Pomona, CA, 2009-2013
Assistant Professor, Western University of Health Sciences, COMP, Pomona, CA, 2008-2009
Assistant Professor, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, 2003-2007
Adjunct Professor, Touro College, City University of New York, 2007
Adjunct Professor, Ramapo College of New Jersey, Mawah, NJ, 2003

Courses

 Infectious diseases, microbiology and immunology topics to the DO, DPM, MSBS and MSMS students.

Research Interest

My laboratory studies the pathophysiology of tuberculosis in the context of HIV co-infection and type II diabetes. We are pioneers in reporting that glutathione (GSH) has both antimycobacterial effects and immune enhancing effects and is necessary for the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We also reported that the levels of GSH were significantly compromised in macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells and T cells derived from individuals with HIV infection. Decreased levels of GSH in individuals with HIV infection was accompanied by diminished control of intracellular Mtb infection. We then demonstrated that the levels of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of GSH such as GSH synthase (GSS), g-glutamyl cysteinyl ligase (GCLC), and GSH reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in individuals with HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. We recently conducted a clinical trial in HIV positive individuals to test the efficacy of liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) in restoring the levels of GSH and improving the functions of immune cells. Findings from this study indicate a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation in the production of TH1 and TH2 associated cytokines. Furthermore, supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with L-GSH resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-12, IFN-y and TNF-a) along with a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß), relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Our studies established a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to Mtb infection via TH2-directed response, which may be relieved with L-GSH supplementation enhancing the TH1 response. I look forward to continuing this important research work (preclinical and clinical studies) and develop immunotherapeutic agents that can be used as adjunct to prevent the development of active tuberculosis in individuals with HIV infection and in people with type II diabetes.

Research Grant

Recent Grants

  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in redox balance and cytokine homeostasis in individuals with HIV infection. $60,000., 2/2015-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in improving CD4 T cell counts in individuals with HIV inection. $50,000, 12-2014-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in restoring the functions of immune cells in individuals with HIV infection. $50,000.,12-2013-no expiration
  • Western University of Health Sciences, Investigators: Manal Swairjo and Vishwanath Venketaraman, Role of host cell tRNA modification in HIV-1 infectivity, $5000., 1-2014-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in individuals with HIV infection and type II diabetes. $40,000., 12-2012-no expiration.
  • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte functions, $27,639., 7-2012 to 6-2013
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $30,000., 12-2011-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $35,000., 12-2010-no expiration
  • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte function. $34,116., 9-2010 to 3-2012
  • NIH-SBIR, (PI), New technology for enhancing oral absorption of water soluble drugs—application to streptomycin. $37,999., 9-2010 to 9-2011
  • Your Energy Systems (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $10,000., 12-2009-no expiration
  • Western University Intramural grant (Co-PI), Studies on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Novel Liposomal Vancomycin Formulations. $22,000., 07/09 to 06/10

Awards

Honors

  • Best Professor Award-2016 (voted by the Masters students from the GCBS, WesternU)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015 (voted by the DO students from the class of 2017 [Pomona Campus])
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015 (voted by the DO students from the class of 2017 [Oregon Campus])
  • Lifelong Learning Research Award-2015
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2014 (voted by the DO students from the class of 2016 [Oregon Campus])
  • Outstanding Faculty Award-2014 (voted by the MSMS and MSBS students from the class of 2014)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2013 (voted by the DO students from the class of 2015 [Pomona Campus])
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LR-M (S1)
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S1)
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S2)
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel (ZAI1-LR-MJ1)
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel (ZAI1-LR-M-M1)
  • Reviewer for American Heart Association Western States Affiliate study section (2008-2010).
  • Permanent reviewer for American Heart Association North East 4 study section (2006-2009).
  • Ad-hoc reviewer for Scheffield Hospitals Charitable Trust, Medical Research Committee, UK. Role: Review grants applications on Microbiology, Immunology, and infectious diseases (2007).
  • Ad hoc reviewer for; “Infection and drug resistance”, “AIDS and palliative care”, “Journal of Inflammation”, and “PLoS One”
  • Ad hoc reviewer for; “Journal of Interferon and cytokine research”, “Genes and Immunity” and “Gene” “ISRN AIDS”
  • Reviewer for Hindawi group of journals
  • Reviewer for the 7th seventh edition of Kuby text book of Immunology, W.H. Freeman Publishers (Chapter 11 and 15)
  • Associate Editor for an upcoming Special issue on "Causes for increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-A close view of the immune system”. Frontiers in Immunology
  • Chair, Research Committee of Western University of Health Sciences (2008-2011).
  • Nominated as a member of research committee of American Heart Association-Heritage Affiliate (2006-2009). Role: Policy and decision making for grant funding and ethical issues involved in research
  • Editor for the text book titled “Global view of HIV infection” (INTECH publishers)
  • Lead Guest Editor for a Special Issue on "Immune Responses Against Tuberculosis Infection" for journal “Clinical and Developmental Immunology”11.

 

Patent Submitted

Title of the provisional patent application: Method of treatment using liposomally formulated reduced glutathione to cooperate with IL-10 to modulate inflammatory response triggered in HIV+ and TB immune-compromised in diabetic patients. Inventors: Frederick Timothy Guilford and Vishwanath Venketeraman

Publication

Recent Publications

  • Ly, J; Morris, D; Lagman, M; Ng, C; Anderson, S; Daliva, J; Muwanas, N; Tarash, I; Ochoa, C; Sathanathan, A. and Venketaraman V. (2016) Complement Receptor Expression in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. In press (corresponding author).
  • Saing, T; Lagman, N; Castrillon, J; Gutierrez, E; Guilford, F. and Venketaraman V. (2016) Analysis of Glutathione levels in the Brain tissue samples from HIV-Positive Individuals and subject with Alzheimer's disease and its implication in the pathophysiology of the disease process. BBA Clinical. 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.05.006 (corresponding author).
  • Allen, M; Bailey, C; Cahatol, I; Dodge, L; Yim, J; Kassissa, C; Luong, J; Kasko, S and Venketaraman, V. (2015) Mechanisms of control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NK cells: role of glutathione. Front Immunol. 6:508 (corresponding author).
  • Venketaraman, V; Kaushal, D; Saviola, B. (2015) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:857598 (corresponding author-impact factor 2.93).  
  • Ly, J; Minette, L; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris, D; Anderson, J; Daliva, J; Ochoa, C; Patel, N; Pearce, D; Venketaraman, V (2015). Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores Appropriate Cytokine Response to Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV Infected Individuals. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 2015. 35(11):875-87 (corresponding author-impact factor 4.411).
  • Minette, L; Ly, J; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris, D; Chi, P; Ochoa, C; Sathananthan, A; Venketaraman, V (2015). Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes. PLoS One. 10 (3):E0118436 (corresponding author)
  • Singh, MK; Vera Tudela, E; Venketaraman, V (2015). Liposomal glutathione supplementation restores appropriate cytokine to intracellular infection in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 63 (1) 172.
  • Gazy, N; Li, H; Zhang, X; Fuchs, S; Venketaraman, V; Martin, J; Zhong, L (2015). Investigating the efficacy of six chemical compounds on downregulation of TNF-a production in macrophages in response to Protein kinase C activation by Phorbol Myristate Acetate. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 63 (1) 212.
  • Saing, T; and Venketaraman, V. (2014). Apolipoprotein E downreglates the production of IL-1 in individuals with HIV Infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 8 (1) 34-36 (corresponding author).
  • Morris D, Ly J, Chi P, Daliva J, Nguyen T, Soofer C, Chen YC, Lagman M, Venketaraman V (2014). Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV. Frontiers in Pharmacology.5 (73) 1.
  • Tudela, EV; Singh MK; Lagman, M; Ly, J, Patel N, Ochoa C, and Venketaraman, V (2014). Cytokine Levels in Plasma Samples of Individuals with HIV Infection. Austin Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1 (1) 5.
  • Saviola, B and Venketaraman, V (2013). An overview on select agents. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 7 (1). 24-28 (corresponding author).
  • Lagman, M; Ly, J; and Venketaraman, V (2013). Glutathione protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection- a possible adjunctive therapy for individuals with HIV infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 7 (1). 29-32 (corresponding author).
  • Morris, D; Nguyen, T; Kim, J; Kassissa, J; Luong, J; Pandya, S; Chu, M; Chi, A; Ly, J; Lagman, M and Venketaraman, V (2013). An Elucidation of neutrophil functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clinical and developmental immunology. 2013: 959650. (corresponding author-Impact factor 3.06).
  • Morris D, Gonzalez B, Khurasany M, Kassissa C, Luong J, Kasko S, Pandya S, Chu M, Chi A, Bui Q, Guerra C, Chan J and Venketaraman V (2013). Characterization of dendritic cell and regulatory T cell functions against M. tb infection. “Biomedical Research International”. Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 402827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/402827 (corresponding author - impact factor 2.5).
  • Morris D, Guerra C, Khurasany M, Guilford F, Saviola B, Huang Y and Venketaraman V (2013). Glutathione supplementation improves macrophage functions in HIV. Journal of Interferon and cytokine research. May 33 (5):270-9 (corresponding author – impact factor 3.06). A figure from this publication also appeared as cover art of the May 2013 issue of the journal.
  • Morris D, Khurasany M, Nyugen T, Kim J, Guilford F, Mehta R, Saviola B, Gray D and Venketaraman V (2013). Glutathione and infection. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects. May 1830(5):3329-49(corresponding author – impact factor 5).
  • Gray D, Saviola B, Guilford F, Khurasany M and Venketaraman V (2012). Role of Glutathione in Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases; In Glutathione: Biochemistry, Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Implications. Nova publishers [chapter ID: 8903; book ID: 142] (corresponding author).
  • Guerra C, Johal K, Morris D, Moreno S, Alvarado O, Gray D, Tanzil M, Pearce D and Venketaraman V (2012). Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by glutathione-enhanced natural killer cells. Clinical and experimental Immunology. 2012. 168 (1): 148-52 (corresponding author-impact factor 3.134).
  • Morris D, Guerra C, Donahue C, HO H, Khurasany M, and Venketaraman V. Unveiling the mechanisms for decreased glutathione in individuals with HIV infection. Clinical and developmental immunology. 2012; 2012:734125. (corresponding author-impact factor 2.263).
  • Guerra C, Morris D, Gray D, Tanzil M, Sipin A, Kung S, Guilford F, Khasawneh F and Venketaraman V. Adaptive immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy and HIV infected individuals. PLoS One. 2011. 6(12):e28378 (corresponding author-impact factor 4.411).
  • Morris D, Donohue C, Sipin A, Kung S, Hyoung Oh, Franklin M, Murad JP, Khasawneh FT, Saviola B, Guilford T and Venketaraman V. Role of cytokines and chemokines in HIV infection. AIDS / Book 1. Intech Open access publishers. 2011. (ISBN 978-953-308-85-1) (corresponding author).
  • Pumerantz P, Muppidi H, Agnihotri S, Guerra C, Venketaraman V, Wang J, Betagiri G. Liposomal Vancomycin: Preparation and Intracellular Killing of MRSA International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2011.37(2):140-4 (impact factor 3.787).

     

Invited Talks

  • Distiguished speaker at the 14th International Conference on Oxidative Stress Reduction, Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidants held in Paris, France, June 12-13, 2014. "HIV infection and oxidative stress focusing on the beneficial effects of glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection"
  • National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis, Chennai, India. "An overview of host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection". Sept. 18, 2013
  • Global Health Week conducted at Western University of Health Sciences, CA, “Introduction and pathogenesis of HIV and TB ". April, 2013
  • EPS International Global Infectious diseases Conference, Shanghai, China, September 2010
  • Southern California Academy of Sciences, Cal State-LA, May 2010
  • Research day, Western University of Health Sciences, November 2009
  • College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, June 2009
  • University of Laverne, November 2008

Click link for additional articles

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Vishwanath+Venketaraman