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Efrain Castellanos, OD, MS, PhD,FCOVD

Coordinator of Third Year Clinical Education, Assistant Professor

College of Optometry

E-Mail: ecastellanos@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-706-8254 | Fax: 909-706-3905

Website: www.westernu.edu

Join year: 2011

Education

PhD in Education, 2017, Universidad de Tijuana

Master in Biomedical Science, 2008, Universidad Autonoma de Aguacalientes

Diplomate in Specialization in Vision and Development, 2006, Universidad de Morelos Facultad de Medicina, Division de Estudios de Postgrado e Investigacion

Licenciado en Optometria, 2003, Universidad Xochicalco

Certification

Fellow College of Optometry Vision Development (FCOVD), 2004, College of Optometry in Vision Development

Professional Experience

  • Yolia Health 2018 to date
  • Advisory board

  • Clinical Director in Centro de Desarrollo Visual 2003- to date
  • Mexicali B.C. México
  • I provide specialty services for patients with special needs, Pediatrics, Low vision and specialty contact lenses for patients with Keratoconus and other corneal ectasias.

  • Instituto de la Visión Dr. Méndez 2008-to date
  • Mexicali B.C. México
  • I provide specialty services for patients with Low vision and specialty contact lenses for patients with Keratoconus and other corneal ectasias.

  • Clinical Director Special Olympics 2007- to date
  • Opening eyes Program
  • I provide comprehensive examinations for patients with special needs from all ages who compete in the Special Olympics events. I helped to coordinate and organize the events at Hermosillo Sonora in 2005 and Tijuana Baja California in 2009. I participated in the World games event in 2015.

  • Optometric Technician 1994 - 1998
  • Performed refraction examinations and contact lens fitting

  • Founding Member Mexican Council of professional Certification in Optometry 2010-to date.
  • We created the different metrics and instruments for board certification for Optometrist in Mexico. This certification is for primary care optometry and valid for years and it is recognized by the Mexican Education Department and the Mexican Health department.

  • Administration experience

  • President Mexican council of Behavioral Optometry (COMOF/OEP Mexico) 2017-2018

  • President Baja California Optometric Association 2017-2018

  • Coordinator of Clerkship Clinical Education 2018 - to date
  • Western University College of Optometry

  • Coordinator Third Year Clinical Education 2012 - to date
  • Western University College of Optometry

  • President of Xochicalco University College of optometry 2007-2009
  • Mexicali B.C. México

  • President Mexican council of Behavioral Optometry (COMOF/OEP Mexico) 2007-2008

  • Founder-President Optica Popular del Noroeste S.A. de C.V. 1998-2003
  • Mexicali B.C. Mexico

  • Founder-President Centro de Desarrollo Visual 2003 to date
  • Mexicali B.C. México

  • Founder-President Junior Optical S.A. de C.V. 1999 to date
  • Mexicali B.C. México

Work Site

  • Centro de Desarrollo Visual, Mexicali, B.C. Mexico, President, Clinical Director
  • Instituto de la Vision Dr. Mendez, Mexicali, B.C. Mexico, Optometrist

Academic Interests

  • Behavioral Optometry
  • Binocular vision
  • Pediatrics
  • Neuro optometry
  • Vision therapy
  • Information and communication Technology
  • Educational Assessment

Teaching Experience

  • Consultant for accreditation for the Master’s degree in Vision Therapy 2015-2016
  • Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes
  • Consultant for the creation of the postgraduate program “Specialty in Behavioral Optometry”
  • Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios 2015-2016
  • Monterrey. Mexico
  • Consultant for the creation of the postgraduate program “Specialty in Vision Therapy” 2015-2016
  • Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios
  • Monterrey. Mexico
  • Consultant for the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education 2014-2016
  • Instructor of record Binocular Vision 2010 -2012
  • Graduate program “Vision Function Specialist”
  • Instituto Politecnico Nacional CICS UMA
  • Instructor of record Pediatric Optometry 2010 -2012
  • Graduate program “Vision Function Specialist”
  • Instituto Politecnico Nacional CICS UMA
  • Instructor of record “Vision Therapy” 2010 -2012
  • Graduate program “Vision Function Specialist”
  • Instituto Politecnico Nacional CICS UMA
  • Instructor of record Neurology of the Visual system 2007- 2008
  • Diplomate: "Visual training of infants with low vision”
  • Universidad Ibero Americana, Torreon
  • Instructor of record Binocular Vision 2003-2010
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Orthoptics I 2004-2010
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Orthoptics II 2004-2010
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Clinical refraction 2005-2006
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Contact lenses 2004-2009
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Ocular Pathology 2005-2007
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Pediatric Optometry 2006-2009
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Low vision I 2005-2007
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Instructor of record Low Vision II 2005-2007
  • Xochicalco University College of Optometry
  • Academic Director Mexican council of Behavioral Optometry.2008- 2009
  • Instructor of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C 2004-2011

Courses

  • Neuro Optometry I – Non Strabismic Vergence disorders, College of Optometry
  • Neuro Optometry II - Strabismus and Amblyopia,College of Optometry
  • Patient Care services II-VII: College of Optometry
  • Practice Management I: College of Optometry

Philosophy

As a professor I aim to share a theoretical and real world applicable knowledge of science and clinical skills that will allow students to develop a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s visual system. In order to meet the aforementioned goals, there is a need of using a variety of pedagogical practices to help students effectively comprehend the topics being taught.

I believe in the use of today’s electronic learning resources as a tool to facilitate the learning outcome as well as the dialogues on various social identities.

It is the responsibilityof the professorto encouragein their students the respect forhuman dignityand the desireto contribute, throughthe study andintellectual growth,to improve thesocietyto which he/she belongs.

The professor must be committed to help the studentrealize as a human being through self-disciplineand developingthe skills tothink criticallyand independently.The professor responsibilityincludes developingself-sufficient individualswho are able toexercise theircreative abilities.

The content ofdifferent subjectsis an important meansfor developingreasoning skillsand critical reflection, whichhelps studentsbecome aware oftheir values.Accordingto the potential ofeach subject being taught ispossible to implementprocedures thatwill allow students toissue valuesto an object, action orperson, froma pedagogical point of view.

The contentof a curriculum is ameans to anend becausescientific truthtoday can be modifiedtomorrow, butthe skills acquiredtopractice will last.

Scientific knowledgewill allow the student to consciouslyassume essential values such​​asauthenticity,accuracy, creativityand justice.

Each topic being taught andall activitythat takes place inthe university hasa close relationship withthe scale of values​​that characterizeeach studentand the group,the expectationsthey have ofthe subject, course,the race,their future workand its significance forsociety.

Therefore the professor must take into account the need to develop independent and critical thinking to different circumstances.

  • Promote the need to understand that technological development is only a means to human growth.
  • To provide students with arguments and reference points that will help them understand the world around them and behave as a responsible and fair element.
  • Promote the possibility of having freedom of thought, opinion and imagination they need to reach their full potential.
  • Stimulate each student to perform at their full potential.

The teacher should play a facilitator role since is critical for the student to play an active role in his academic learning. I will ensure a safe and inclusive environment by establishing ground rules for class discussions and having students engaged with the course materials, discussions, and class dynamics, facilitating the class participation in exercises and activities that encourage students to think more deeply always keeping in mind that some students are more visual learners while others are more conceptual or concrete.

I intend to utilize my teaching skills and resources to empower students to provide a humanistic science based model of optometry practice.

Research Grant

  • 1. "Visual Skills and academic performance in Optometry student enrolled at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. ENES Campus Leon"
  • 2. Limitations to glaucoma case management as perceived by optometrists in Mexico
  • 3. Visual skills in the 3-6-year-old down syndrome population
  • Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios. Monterrey. Mexico
  • 4. Limitations to glaucoma case management as perceived by optometrists in Mexico
  • 5. Refractive error and academic performance in children
  • Western University College of Optometry
  • 6. Visual skills and academic performance in children in the Pomona Unified School District
  • Western University College of Optometry
7. Visual Symptoms and academic performance in children in the Pomona Unified School District Western University College of Optometry

Awards

  • Distinguished Alumni 2017
  • Xochicalco University
  • Awarded with the Innovation in Education Grant 2012
  • American Optometric Foundation
  • Special Recognition for professional trajectory 2011
  • Mexican council of Behavioral Optometry (COMOF/OEP Mexico)
  • The optometry class of 2010 was named “Dr. Efrain Castellanos” 2010
  • Universidad Xochicalco
  • Special Award for dedicated service 2010
  • International Examination and Certification Board
  • College Of Optometrist in Vision Development
  • Awarded with the Arthur Martin Skeffington* 2004
  • Mexican Council of Behavioral Optometry (COMOF/OEP Mexico)
  • *Highest award given by the council.

Organizations

  • American Academy of Optometry (AAO)
  • American Optometric Association (AOA)
  • Vision Science Society
  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
  • California Optometric Association (COA)
  • Inland Empire Optometric Society (IEOS)
  • College Of Optometrist in Vision Development (COVD)
  • Optometric Extension Program Foundation (OEPF)
  • Mexican council of Behavioral Optometry (COMOF/OEP Mexico)
  • National Optometric Student Association (NOSA) - Chapter Western University College of Optometry, Advisor

Committees

  • Education Committee,2019 to date
  • Asociación Latino Americana de Optometría y Optica
  • BIG IDEA Fund Committee,2018 to date
  • Admissions committee, 2018-2019
  • Western University College of Optometry
  • Member of the Review Board, 2012 to date
  • Optometry and Visual Performance
  • Member of the Review Board, 2014 to date
  • California Optometry
  • Chair Community Affairs, 2013-2015
  • Inland Empire Optometric Society
  • Chair Binocular Vision and Perception Educators, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, 2011-2014
  • Chairman of the certification committee of Mexican Council of Certification in Optometry, 2010-2011
  • Academic Director of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C., 2008-2009
  • International Examination and Certification Boardmember,College Of Optometrist In Vision Development, 2007-2010
  • Member of the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education in Mexico,2007-2010
  • Chairman of thecertificationcommittee, Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C. (COMOF), 2006-2011
  • Past President of Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional A.C.( OEP MEXICO ), 2006-2007
  • Chairman of the health committee of the program “Ver bien para aprender mejor”,2004-2011

Publications

  • 1. Can refractive error impact academic performance?
  • Castellanos E. Pinakin D., Remick. K
  • Poster presented at ARVO annual meeting 2019
  • 2. Comparison of a video game-based vision screening to conventional vision screening performed by optometry students
  • Remick. K., Castellanos E. Pinakin D.,
  • Poster presented at ARVO annual meeting 2019
  • 3. Limitations to glaucoma case management as perceived by optometrists in Mexico
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • Poster presented at the Latin American Optometry and Optics Congress 2018 (ALDOO)
  • 4. The use of social media to foster Student engagement
  • Poster presented at the American Academy of Optometry Annual meeting 2017
  • 5. Fusional Vergence differences between manual phoropter and automated phoropter
  • Efrain Castellanos, Kevin Phan
  • Journal of Vision 2017;17(10):160. doi: 10.1167/17.10.160.
  • 6. "Reading-related Binocular Symptoms: Relationship to Distance Visual Acuity" (pending OVS15701)
  • Powers M, Chase C, Shamada T, Liu C, Remick K, Castellanos E. Cao J.
  • 7. Predicting Binocular Dysfunction with the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS)
  • Chris Chase, Ph.D., Chunming Liu, Ph.D., OD, MD, Kristy Remick-Waltman, OD, Efrain Castellanos, OD, MS, Sandy Tran, BS, Judy Cao, BS, Maureen Powers, PhD
  • Paper presented at COVD 2013 Annual meeting
  • 8. Can Chronic Visual Discomfort Measures Accurately Predict Acute Symptoms?
  • Drew SA, Borsting E, Escobar AE, Liu C, Castellanos E, Chase C.
  • Optometry & Vision Science. 2013;90(10):1149-55
  • 9. Can chronic symptoms measures accurately predict acute visual discomfort symptoms?
  • Stefanie A. Drew, Amy Escobar, Chunming Liu, Efrain Castellanos, Lawrence R. Stark, Eric Borsting, Chris Chase.
  • Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(15):5326
  • 10. Tonic Accommodation Correlates with Accommodative Amplitude-Scaled Facility Test for Symptomatic Graduate Students
  • Chunming Liu , Chris Chase, Stefanie A. Drew, Efrain Castellanos, Amy Escobar, Eric Borsting, Lawrence R. Stark.
  • Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2013;54(15):4259.
  • 11. Larger Tonic Accommodation Correlates with Better Focus at Near for Symptomatic Graduate School Students
  • Chris Chase, Stefanie A. Drew, Amy Escobar, Chunming Liu, Efrain Castellanos, Lawrence R. Stark, Eric Borsting
  • Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.2013;54(15):4260.
  • 12. Vision and Learning
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • California Optometry 2013: 40: 46-50
  • 13. Accommodative lag is not predictive of Diminished reading speeds in natural settings
  • Stefanie A. Drew, Amy E. Escobar, Chris Chase, Chunming Liu, Efrain Castellanos, Lawrence Stark & Eric Borsting
  • Journal of Vision. 2012; 12(9):525-525. doi: 10.1167/12.9.525
  • 14. Weak accommodation in asymptomatic young adults
  • Amy E. Escobar, Stefanie A. Drew, Chris Chase, Chunming Liu, Efrain Castellanos, Eric Borsting, & Lawrence Stark
  • Journal of Vision 2012;12(9):526. doi: 10.1167/12.9.526.
  • 15. VISUAL DISCOMFORT SYMPTOMOLOGY AND ITS CORRELATION WITH CLINICAL MEASURES OF ACCOMMODATIVE AND VERGENCE FUNCTION
  • Liu, Chunming, C. Chase, E. Borsting, S. Drew, A. Escobar, L. Stark, E. Castellanos
  • Poster presented at the American Academy Annual meeting 2012
  • 16. Visual Discomfort in Graduate School Students Compared to College Students
  • Chunming Liu, Chris Chase, Castellanos Efrain, Stefanie Drew, Amy Escobar, Lawrence Stark, Eric Borsting.
  • Poster presented at ARVO 2012 Annual meeting
  • 17. Optometric Vision Therapy for Amblyopia
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • California Optometry 2011: 38: 36-42
  • 18. Examining the pediatric patient
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • Optometry Today India June 2011
  • 19. OCULOMOTOR AND ACCOMMODATIVE SKILLS- Their effect on learning and reading
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • Third State Congress “Research in Post Graduate programs.”
  • Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes 2007
  • 20. ¿Porque 20/20 no es suficiente?
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • Imagen óptica 2007: 7
  • 21. Modificación al método Von Graefe
  • Castellanos Efrain
  • Imagen óptica 2003: 5