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Vishwanath Venketaraman, PhD

Professor of Microbiology/Immunology

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

E-Mail: vvenketaraman@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-706-3736

Join year: January 2008

Education

Ph.D., Immunology, National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis M.S., Biology, University of Madras B.S., Biology, University of Madras

Teaching Experience

Professor, COMP &GSBS, WesternU, Pomona CA, 2018-present

Associate Professor, COMP &GCBS, Pomona, CA, 2013-2018

Assistant Professor, COMP, WesternU Pomona, CA, 2009-2013

Assistant Professor, Western University of Health Sciences, COMP, Pomona, CA, 2008-2009

Assistant Professor, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, 2003-2007

Adjunct Professor, Touro College, City University of New York, 2007

Adjunct Professor, Ramapo College of New Jersey, Mawah, NJ, 2003

Courses

Infectious diseases, microbiology and immunology topics to the DO, DPM, MSBS and MSMS students.

Research Interest

My laboratory studies the pathophysiology of tuberculosis in the context of HIV co-infection and type II diabetes. We are pioneers in reporting that glutathione (GSH) has both antimycobacterial effects and immune enhancing effects and is necessary for the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We also reported that the levels of GSH were significantly compromised in macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells and T cells derived from individuals with HIV infection. Decreased levels of GSH in individuals with HIV infection was accompanied by diminished control of intracellular Mtb infection. We then demonstrated that the levels of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of GSH such as GSH synthase (GSS), g-glutamyl cysteinyl ligase (GCLC), and GSH reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in individuals with HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. We recently conducted a clinical trial in HIV positive individuals to test the efficacy of liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) in restoring the levels of GSH and improving the functions of immune cells. Findings from this study indicate a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation in the production of TH1 and TH2 associated cytokines. Furthermore, supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with L-GSH resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-12, IFN-y and TNF-a) along with a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß), relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Our studies established a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to Mtb infection via TH2-directed response, which may be relieved with L-GSH supplementation enhancing the TH1 response. I look forward to continuing this important research work (preclinical and clinical studies) and develop immunotherapeutic agents that can be used as adjunct to prevent the development of active tuberculosis in individuals with HIV infection and in people with type II diabetes.

Research Grant

Recent Grants

  • NIH (NHLBI), (PI). Glutathione depletion in lung parenchyma and its effects on Mtb infection. $423,000. 04/2019 to 03/2022
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Preclinical studies to determine the efficacy of proliposomal glutathione in improving immune responses against Mtb Infection. $50,000., 12-2019 no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Effects of liposomal gluthathione in improving the granulomatous responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes. $50,000., 12/2017-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Effects of liposomal glutathione in improving the granulomatous responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes. $50,000., 12/2016-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in redox balance and cytokine homeostasis in individuals with HIV infection. $60,000., 2/2015-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in improving CD4 T cell counts in individuals with HIV inection. $50,000, 12-2014-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in restoring the functions of immune cells in individuals with HIV infection. $50,000.,12-2013-no expiration
  • Western University of Health Sciences, Investigators: Manal Swairjo and Vishwanath Venketaraman, Role of host cell tRNA modification in HIV-1 infectivity, $5000., 1-2014-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in individuals with HIV infection and type II diabetes. $40,000., 12-2012-no expiration.
  • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte functions, $27,639., 7-2012 to 6-2013
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $30,000., 12-2011-no expiration
  • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $35,000., 12-2010-no expiration
  • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte function. $34,116., 9-2010 to 3-2012
  • NIH-SBIR, (PI), New technology for enhancing oral absorption of water soluble drugs—application to streptomycin. $37,999., 9-2010 to 9-2011
  • Your Energy Systems (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $10,000., 12-2009-no expiration
  • Western University Intramural grant (Co-PI), Studies on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Novel Liposomal Vancomycin Formulations. $22,000., 07/09 to 06/10

Awards

Honors

  • Provost’s Distinguished Scholar Award from Western University of Health Sciences-2019
  • Best Professor Award-2019(voted by the Master’s students [MSMS program] from the class of 2019. Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences)
  • College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific- Dean’s Award for Faculty Excellence by Student Proclamation-2019
  • Distinguished Teacher Award from Western University of Health Sciences-2017
  • Distinguished Faculty Award for Teaching and Education-College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific- 2017
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2017(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2019] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Personal and Professional Goal Achievement Award-2017 (voted by COMP faculty)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2016(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2018] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Lifelong Learning Research Award-2016 (voted by COMP faculty)
  • Best Professor Award-2016(voted by the Masters students [MSMS program] from the class of 2016. Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2017] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015(voted by the medical students from the DO program [Oregon Campus-class of 2017] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Lifelong Learning Research Award-2015 (voted by COMP faculty)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2014(voted by the medical students from the DO program [Oregon Campus-class of 2016] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Outstanding Faculty Award-2014(voted by the graduate students from the MSMS program, Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences-class of 2014, Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2013(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2015] of Western University of Health Sciences)
  • Marquis Who’s Who-Lifetime Achievement Award-2017
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S1)-2013
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S2)-2014
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-MJ1)-2015
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M-M1) -2015
  • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M-(S)1)-2016
  • NIH Reviewer-R01 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M (M2)]-2017
  • NIH Reviewer-R01 Special emphasis panel ZRG1 IDM-T (50)-2018, 2019

Patent Submitted

Title of the provisional patent application: Method of treatment using liposomally formulated reduced glutathione to cooperate with IL-10 to modulate inflammatory response triggered in HIV+ and TB immune-compromised in diabetic patients. Inventors: Frederick Timothy Guilford and Vishwanath Venketeraman

Publications

Recent Publications

  • Cerni S, Shafer D, To K, Venketaraman V. Investigating the role of Everolimus in mTOR Inhibition and Autophagy Promotion as a Potential Host-Directed Therapeutic Target inMycobacterium tuberculosisInfection. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Feb 11;8(2). pii: E232. (corresponding author).
  • Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Gutierrez M, Salaiz O, Munjal S, Fraix MP, Sathananthan A, Nieman DC,Venketaraman V. Flavonoid Mixture InhibitsMycobacterium tuberculosisSurvival and Infectivity. Molecules. 2019. Feb 28;24(5). pii: E851 (corresponding author).
  • Orenstein R, Covasa M, Venketaraman V. Symbiosis: Ecology of the human microbiome. In Seffinger M (eds) Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine. Wolters Kluwer. 2019, chapter 16:362-374.
  • Cao R, Islamoglu H, Teskey G, Gyurijian K, Abrahem R, Onajole OK, Lun S, Bishai W, Kozikowski AP, Fraix MP, Sathananthan A,Zhong L, Stec J, Venketaraman V. The preclinical candidate indole-2-carboxamide improves immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy subjects and individuals with type 2 diabetes. International Microbiology. 2019. June 19th https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-019-00086-0. Springer Nature (corresponding author).
  • Dara Y, Volcani D, Shah K, Shin K, Venketaraman V. Potentials of host-directed therapies in tuberculosis management. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Aug 3;8(8). pii: E1166. doi: 10.3390/jcm8081166 (corresponding author).
  • Abrahem R, Cao R, Robinson B, Munjal S, Cho T, To K, Ashley D, Hernandez J, Nguyen T, Teskey G, Venketaraman V. Elucidating the efficacy of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination in conjunction with first line antibiotics and liposomal glutathione. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Sep 27;8(10). pii: E1556. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101556. (corresponding author).
  • Ferlita S, Yegiazaryan A, Noori N, Lal G, Nguyen T, To K, Venketaraman V. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and altered immune system leading to susceptibility to pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. 8, 2219. (corresponding author).
  • Vishwanath, Venketaraman; Aram, Yegiazaryan. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Encyclopedia, 2019, v2, Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/415. doi: 10.32545/encyclopedia2019 12.0001.v1 (corresponding author).
  • Venketaraman, V. (book editor), (2018)Understanding the Host Immune Response Against Mycobaterium tuberculosis Infection.Sprinter Nature Switzerland AG.
  • Robinson B, Munjal S, D’Agostino J, Venketaraman V. Liposomal glutathione as a potential therapeutic agent to control HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. European Medical Journal. 2018. 3 [4] 62-69 (corresponding author).
  • Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Abrahem R, Gyurijian K, Zhong L, Venketaraman B. (2018) Characterizing the Effects of Glutathione as an Immunoadjuvant in the Treatment of Tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 62 (11). (corresponding author).
  • Teskey G, Cao R. Islamoglu H, Medina A, Prasad C, Prasad R, Sathananthan A, Fraix M, Subbian S, Zhong L, Venketaraman V. (2018). The Synergistic Effects of the Glutathione Precurser, NAC and First-Line Antibiotics in the Granulomatous Response Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Frontiers in Immunology. 9. 2069 (corresponding author).
  • Islamoglu H, Cao R, Teskey G, Gyurijian K, Lucar S, Fraix M, Sathananthan A, Venketaraman V (2018). Effects of Readisorb L-GSH in altering granulomatous responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 7 (3) 1-24 (corresponding author).
  • Jain, SK, Tobin D, Tucker EW, Venketaraman V, Ordonez AA, Jayashankar L, Siddiqui OK, Hammoud DA, Prasadarao NV, Sandor M, Haffner, Fabry Z (2018). Tuberculous Meningitis: A Roadmap for Advancing Basic and Translational Research. Nature Immunology. Jun;19(6):521-525
  • Brazil J, and Venketraman V (2018). Cigarette Smoking and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis. In Understanding the host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Springer Nature. Chapter 6:111-126(Corresponding author).
  • Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurijian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, Martinez A, Paredes E, Salaiz O, Robinson B, Venketaraman V (2018). Glutathione as a marker for human disease. Advances in Clinical Chemistry. Volume 87. 141-159 (corresponding author).
  • Teskey G, Cato C, Hernandez J, Kaur P, Koury J, Lucero M, Tran A, and Venketaraman V (2018). Host directed therapies for tuberculosis. In Understanding the host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Springer Nature. Chapter 5:99-110(Corresponding author).
  • Alejandre, A.; Gonzalez, L.; Hussain, P.; Ly, J.; Muthiah, A.; Saing, T.; Valdivia, A. and Venketaraman, V. (2018) Glutathione supplementation, antioxidant effects and HIV. Chapter 12. In HIV/AIDS Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants. Elsevier Publishers (corresponding author).
  • Dong, J.; Muthiah, A.; Hussain, P.; Yoshida, M. and Venketaraman, V.(2018)Selenium supplementation, Antioxidant effects, and Immune restorative effects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Chapter 17. In HIV/AIDS Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants. Elsevier Publishers (corresponding author).
  • Tudela, E.; Singh, M. and Venketaraman, V. (2017) Glutathione, Immunity, and Infection. Chapter 22. In Nutrition, Immunity and Infection, Francis and Taylor Publishers (corresponding author).
  • Valdivia, A; Ly, J; Gonzalez, L; Hussain, P; Saing, T; Islamoglu, H; Pearce, D; Ochoa, C; and Venketaraman, V. Restoring cytokine balance in HIV positive individuals with low CD4 T cell counts. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2017. April 11th. doi: 10.1089/AID.2016.0303. PMID:28398068 (corresponding author).
  • Warren, E.; Teskey, G.; Venketaraman, V. (2017)Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 7:6 (2). PMID:28178208. (corresponding author).
  • Saing, T; Valdivia, A; Hussain, P; Ly, J; Gonzalez, L; Guilford, F; Pearce, D and Venketaraman V. Data on pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-16, IL-17 and IL-6 in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individual. Data in Breif. 2016. 8:1044-7. PNID:27508262 (corresponding author).
  • Ly, J; Morris, D; Lagman, M; Ng, C; Anderson, S; Daliva, J; Muwanas, N; Tarash, I; Ochoa, C; Sathanathan, A. and Venketaraman V. (2016) Complement Receptor Expression in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. 2016. Jun 8. PMID: 27291248 (corresponding author).
  • Saing, T; Lagman, N; Castrillon, J; Gutierrez, E; Guilford, F. and Venketaraman V. (2016) Analysis of Glutathione levels in the Brain tissue samples from HIV-Positive Individuals and subject with Alzheimer's disease and its implication in the pathophysiology of the disease process. BBA Clinical. May 29:6:38-44. 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.05.006 (corresponding author).
  • Allen, M; Bailey, C; Cahatol, I; Dodge, L; Yim, J; Kassissa, C; Luong, J; Kasko, S and Venketaraman, V. (2015) Mechanisms of control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NK cells: role of glutathione. Front Immunol.6:508 (corresponding author).
  • Venketaraman, V; Kaushal, D; Saviola, B. (2015) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:857598 (corresponding author-impact factor 2.93).
  • Ly, J; Minette, L; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris, D; Anderson, J; Daliva, J; Ochoa, C; Patel, N; Pearce, D; Venketaraman, V (2015). Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores Appropriate Cytokine Response to Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV Infected Individuals. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 2015. 35(11):875-87 (corresponding author-impact factor 4.411).
  • Minette, L; Ly, J; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris, D; Chi, P; Ochoa, C; Sathananthan, A; Venketaraman, V (2015). Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes. PLoS One. 10 (3):E0118436 (corresponding author)
  • Singh, MK; Vera Tudela, E; Venketaraman, V (2015). Liposomal glutathione supplementation restores appropriate cytokine to intracellular infection in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 63 (1) 172.
  • Gazy, N; Li, H; Zhang, X; Fuchs, S; Venketaraman, V; Martin, J; Zhong, L (2015). Investigating the efficacy of six chemical compounds on downregulation of TNF-a production in macrophages in response to Protein kinase C activation by Phorbol Myristate Acetate. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 63 (1) 212.
  • Saing, T; and Venketaraman, V. (2014). Apolipoprotein E downreglates the production of IL-1 in individuals with HIV Infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 8 (1) 34-36 (corresponding author).
  • Morris D, Ly J, Chi P, Daliva J, Nguyen T, Soofer C, Chen YC, Lagman M, Venketaraman V (2014). Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV. Frontiers in Pharmacology.5 (73) 1.
  • Tudela, EV; Singh MK; Lagman, M; Ly, J, Patel N, Ochoa C, and Venketaraman, V (2014). Cytokine Levels in Plasma Samples of Individuals with HIV Infection. Austin Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1 (1) 5.
  • Saviola, B and Venketaraman, V (2013). An overview on select agents. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 7 (1). 24-28 (corresponding author).
  • Lagman, M; Ly, J; and Venketaraman, V (2013). Glutathione protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection- a possible adjunctive therapy for individuals with HIV infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 7 (1). 29-32 (corresponding author).
  • Morris, D; Nguyen, T; Kim, J; Kassissa, J; Luong, J; Pandya, S; Chu, M; Chi, A; Ly, J; Lagman, M and Venketaraman, V (2013). An Elucidation of neutrophil functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clinical and developmental immunology. 2013: 959650. (corresponding author-Impact factor 3.06).
  • Morris D, Gonzalez B, Khurasany M, Kassissa C, Luong J, Kasko S, Pandya S, Chu M, Chi A, Bui Q, Guerra C, Chan J and Venketaraman V (2013). Characterization of dendritic cell and regulatory T cell functions against M. tb infection. “Biomedical Research International”. Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 402827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/402827 (corresponding author - impact factor 2.5).
  • Morris D, Guerra C, Khurasany M, Guilford F, Saviola B, Huang Y and Venketaraman V (2013). Glutathione supplementation improves macrophage functions in HIV. Journal of Interferon and cytokine research. May 33 (5):270-9 (corresponding author – impact factor 3.06). A figure from this publication also appeared as cover art of the May 2013 issue of the journal.
  • Morris D, Khurasany M, Nyugen T, Kim J, Guilford F, Mehta R, Saviola B, Gray D and Venketaraman V (2013). Glutathione and infection. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects. May 1830(5):3329-49(corresponding author – impact factor 5).
  • Gray D, Saviola B, Guilford F, Khurasany M and Venketaraman V (2012). Role of Glutathione in Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases; In Glutathione: Biochemistry, Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Implications. Nova publishers [chapter ID: 8903; book ID: 142] (corresponding author).
  • Guerra C, Johal K, Morris D, Moreno S, Alvarado O, Gray D, Tanzil M, Pearce D and Venketaraman V (2012). Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by glutathione-enhanced natural killer cells. Clinical and experimental Immunology. 2012. 168 (1): 148-52 (corresponding author-impact factor 3.134).
  • Morris D, Guerra C, Donahue C, HO H, Khurasany M, and Venketaraman V. Unveiling the mechanisms for decreased glutathione in individuals with HIV infection. Clinical and developmental immunology. 2012; 2012:734125. (corresponding author-impact factor 2.263).
  • Guerra C, Morris D, Gray D, Tanzil M, Sipin A, Kung S, Guilford F, Khasawneh F and Venketaraman V. Adaptive immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy and HIV infected individuals. PLoS One. 2011. 6(12):e28378 (corresponding author-impact factor 4.411).
  • Morris D, Donohue C, Sipin A, Kung S, Hyoung Oh, Franklin M, Murad JP, Khasawneh FT, Saviola B, Guilford T and Venketaraman V. Role of cytokines and chemokines in HIV infection. AIDS / Book 1. Intech Open access publishers. 2011. (ISBN 978-953-308-85-1) (corresponding author).
  • Pumerantz P, Muppidi H, Agnihotri S, Guerra C, Venketaraman V, Wang J, Betagiri G. Liposomal Vancomycin: Preparation and Intracellular Killing of MRSA International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2011.37(2):140-4 (impact factor 3.787).

Invited Talks

  • Invited speaker at the Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of the AAAS-Pacific Division symposia"Adjunctive therapy for tuberculosis" June 13, 2018
  • Distiguished speaker at the 14th International Conference on Oxidative Stress Reduction, Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidants held in Paris, France, June 12-13, 2014. "HIV infection and oxidative stress focusing on the beneficial effects of glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection"
  • National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis, Chennai, India. "An overview of host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection". Sept. 18, 2013
  • Global Health Week conducted at Western University of Health Sciences, CA, “Introduction and pathogenesis of HIV and TB ". April, 2013
  • EPS International Global Infectious diseases Conference, Shanghai, China, September 2010
  • Southern California Academy of Sciences, Cal State-LA, May 2010
  • Research day, Western University of Health Sciences, November 2009
  • College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, June 2009
  • University of Laverne, November 2008

Click link for additional articles

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Vishwanath+Venketaraman