Skip to Content Skip to Footer
Vishwanath Venketaraman, PhD

Vishwanath Venketaraman, PhD

Professor of Microbiology/Immunology

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

vvenketaraman@westernu.edu

Phone: 909-706-3736

Join year: January 2008

  • Education

    Ph.D., Immunology, National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis
    M.S., Biology, University of Madras
    B.S., Biology, University of Madras

  • Teaching Experience

    Professor, COMP &GSBS, WesternU, Pomona CA, 2018-present

    Associate Professor, COMP &GCBS, Pomona, CA, 2013-2018

    Assistant Professor, COMP, WesternU Pomona, CA, 2009-2013

    Assistant Professor, Western University of Health Sciences, COMP, Pomona, CA, 2008-2009

    Assistant Professor, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, 2003-2007

    Adjunct Professor, Touro College, City University of New York, 2007

    Adjunct Professor, Ramapo College of New Jersey, Mawah, NJ, 2003

  • Courses

    Infectious diseases, microbiology and immunology topics to the DO, DPM, MSBS and MSMS students.

  • Research Interest

    My laboratory studies the pathophysiology of tuberculosis in the context of HIV co-infection and type II diabetes. We are pioneers in reporting that glutathione (GSH) has both antimycobacterial effects and immune enhancing effects and is necessary for the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We also reported that the levels of GSH were significantly compromised in macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells and T cells derived from individuals with HIV infection. Decreased levels of GSH in individuals with HIV infection was accompanied by diminished control of intracellular Mtb infection. We then demonstrated that the levels of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of GSH such as GSH synthase (GSS), g-glutamyl cysteinyl ligase (GCLC), and GSH reductase (GSR) were significantly reduced in individuals with HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. We recently conducted a clinical trial in HIV positive individuals to test the efficacy of liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) in restoring the levels of GSH and improving the functions of immune cells. Findings from this study indicate a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation in the production of TH1 and TH2 associated cytokines. Furthermore, supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with L-GSH resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-12, IFN-y and TNF-a) along with a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß), relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Our studies established a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to Mtb infection via TH2-directed response, which may be relieved with L-GSH supplementation enhancing the TH1 response. I look forward to continuing this important research work (preclinical and clinical studies) and develop immunotherapeutic agents that can be used as adjunct to prevent the development of active tuberculosis in individuals with HIV infection and in people with type II diabetes.

  • Research Grant

    Recent Grants

    • NIH (NHLBI), (PI). Glutathione depletion in lung parenchyma and its effects on Mtb infection. $423,000. 03/2022 to 03/2023
    • Your Energy Systems (PI). Pro-liposomal glutathione against COVID-19 infection. $50,000., 12/2020-no expiration
    • Potts Memorial Foundation (PI on Subcontract from Chapman University). Amphipathic macrocyclic peptide against non-tuberculous mycobacteria. $10,000., 12/2020-03/2022
    • Your Energy Systems (PI). Pro-liposomal glutathione against COVID-19 infection. $50,000., 12/2021-no expiration
    • Auro Pharmaceuticals (PI). Topical glutathione absorption studies. $45,000., 12/2020-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Preclinical studies to determine the efficacy of proliposomal glutathione in improving immune responses against Mtb Infection. $50,000., 12-2019 no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Effects of liposomal gluthathione in improving the granulomatous responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes. $50,000., 12/2017-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI). Effects of liposomal glutathione in improving the granulomatous responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes. $50,000., 12/2016-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in redox balance and cytokine homeostasis in individuals with HIV infection. $60,000., 2/2015-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in improving CD4 T cell counts in individuals with HIV inection. $50,000, 12-2014-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Efficacy of liposomal glutathione in restoring the functions of immune cells in individuals with HIV infection. $50,000.,12-2013-no expiration
    • Western University of Health Sciences, Investigators: Manal Swairjo and Vishwanath Venketaraman, Role of host cell tRNA modification in HIV-1 infectivity, $5000., 1-2014-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in individuals with HIV infection and type II diabetes. $40,000., 12-2012-no expiration.
    • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte functions, $27,639., 7-2012 to 6-2013
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $30,000., 12-2011-no expiration
    • Your Energy Systems, (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $35,000., 12-2010-no expiration
    • Surro-Immune, (Co-PI), Effects of CAEV infection on macrophage and T lymphocyte function. $34,116., 9-2010 to 3-2012
    • NIH-SBIR, (PI), New technology for enhancing oral absorption of water soluble drugs—application to streptomycin. $37,999., 9-2010 to 9-2011
    • Your Energy Systems (PI), Effects of liposomal glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. $10,000., 12-2009-no expiration
    • Western University Intramural grant (Co-PI), Studies on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Novel Liposomal Vancomycin Formulations. $22,000., 07/09 to 06/10
  • Awards

    Honors

    • Provost’s Distinguished Scholar Award from Western University of Health Sciences-2019
    • Best Professor Award-2019(voted by the Master’s students [MSMS program] from the class of 2019. Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences)
    • College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific- Dean’s Award for Faculty Excellence by Student Proclamation-2019
    • Distinguished Teacher Award from Western University of Health Sciences-2017
    • Distinguished Faculty Award for Teaching and Education-College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific- 2017
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2017(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2019] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Personal and Professional Goal Achievement Award-2017 (voted by COMP faculty)
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2016(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2018] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Lifelong Learning Research Award-2016 (voted by COMP faculty)
    • Best Professor Award-2016(voted by the Masters students [MSMS program] from the class of 2016. Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2017] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2015(voted by the medical students from the DO program [Oregon Campus-class of 2017] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Lifelong Learning Research Award-2015 (voted by COMP faculty)
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2014(voted by the medical students from the DO program [Oregon Campus-class of 2016] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Outstanding Faculty Award-2014(voted by the graduate students from the MSMS program, Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences-class of 2014, Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Outstanding Basic Medical Science Faculty Award-2013(voted by the medical students from the DO program [California Campus-class of 2015] of Western University of Health Sciences)
    • Marquis Who’s Who-Lifetime Achievement Award-2017
    • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S1)-2013
    • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1 LG-M (S2)-2014
    • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-MJ1)-2015
    • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M-M1) -2015
    • NIH Reviewer-R21/R33 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M-(S)1)-2016
    • NIH Reviewer-R01 Special emphasis panel ZAI1-LR-M (M2)]-2017
    • NIH Reviewer-R01 Special emphasis panel ZRG1 IDM-T (50)-2018, 2019

    Patent Submitted

    Title of the provisional patent application: Method of treatment using liposomally formulated reduced glutathione to cooperate with IL-10 to modulate inflammatory response triggered in HIV+ and TB immune-compromised in diabetic patients. Inventors: Frederick Timothy Guilford and Vishwanath Venketeraman

  • Publications

    Recent Publications

    • Gyurjian K and Venketaraman V. Thyroid Hormone Resistant Syndrome. Medical Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 2020. 13 (1):7-11(corresponding author).
    • Ashley D, Hernandez J, Cao R, To K, Yegiazaryan A, Abrahem R, Nguyen T, Owens J, Lambros MP, Subbian S, Venketaraman V. Antimycobacterial Effects of Everolimus in human granuloma model. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. Jun 29;9(7): E2043 (corresponding author).
    • To K, Cao R, Yegiazaryan A, Owens J, Venketaraman V. General overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9. 2541 (corresponding author).
    • Hernandez J, Ashley D, Cao R, Abrahem R, Nguyen T, To K, Yegiazaryan A, Akinwale AD, Tiwari RK, Venketaraman V. Effects of cyclic peptide (R4W4) in improving the ability of first-line antibiotics to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside in vitro human granulomas. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020. 11. 1677 (corresponding author).
    • Abrahem R, Chiang E, Haquang J, Nham A, Ting, Y-S, Venketaraman V. The role of dendritic cells in effective host immune response. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9(8), 2661 (corresponding author).
    • Venketaraman V. Recent Advances in Mycobacterial Research. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2650 (corresponding author).
    • Singh M, Vaughn C, Sasaninia K, Yeh C, Mehta D, Abukhieran I, Venketaraman V. Understanding the relationship between glutathione, TGF-b and Vitamin D in combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9, 2757 (corresponding author).
    • Nguyen H, Gazy N, Venketaraman V. A role of intracellular toll like receptors (3, 7, and 9) in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and co-infected with HIV. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020. 21.6148 (corresponding author).
    • Arshad A, Dayal S, Gadhe R, Mawley A, Shin K, Tellez D, Phan P, Venketaraman V. Analysis of Tuberculosis Meningitis Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9, 2962 (corresponding author).
    • Guloyan V, Oganesian B, Baghdasaryan N, Yeh C, Singh M, Guilford F, Ting Y-S, Venketaraman V. Glutathione Supplementation As An Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19. Antioxidants. 2020.9, 914 (corresponding author).
    • Wong, K.; Nguyen, J.; Blair, L.; Banjanin, M.; Grewal, B.; Bowman, S.; Boyd, H.; Gerstner, G.; Cho, H.J.; Panfilov, D.; Tam, C.K.; Aguilar, D.; Venketaraman, V. Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Co-Infection. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3575 (corresponding author).
    • Kenchappa V, Cao R, Betageri G, Venketaraman V. Site specific delivery of an antiretroviral drug and an immunomodulatory agent using liposomes: an approach to combat opportunistic infections. Applied Sciences. 2022.12:1468.
    • Cho, T.; Khatchadourian, C.; Nguyen, H.; Dara Y.; Jung, S.; Venketaraman, V. A Review of the BCG Vaccine and Other Approaches Towards Tuberculosis Eradication. Human Vaccines &Immune Therapeutics. 2021. Mar 26:1-17. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2021.1885280 (corresponding author).
    • To, K; Cao, R.; Yegiazaryan, A.; Owens, J.; Sasaninia, K.; Vaughn, C.; Singh, M.; Truong, E.; Sathananthan, A.; Venketaraman, V. The Effects of Oral Liposomal Glutathione and In Vitro Everolimus in Altering The Immune Responses Against Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strain in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Biomolecular Concepts. 2021. May 9;12(1):16-26. doi: 10.1515/bmc-2021-0003.(corresponding author).
    • Tellez, D.; Dayal, S.; Phan, P.; Mawley, A.; Shah, K.; Tellez, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabnis, R.; Dayal, S.; Venketaraman, V. Analysis of COVID-19 on diagnosis, vaccine, treatment, and pathogenesis with clinical scenarios. Clinics and Practice. 2021. 11(2):309-321. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11020044 (corresponding author).
    • To, K.; Cao, R.; Yegiazaryan, A.; Owens, J.; Nguyen, T.; Sasaninia, K.; Vaughn, C.; Singh, M.; Truong, E.; Medina, A.; Avitia, E.; Villegas, J.; Pham, C.; Sathananthan, A.; Venketaraman, V. Effects of oral liposomal glutathione in altering the immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2021.11:657775. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.657775 (corresponding author).
    • Cao, R.; To, K.; Kachour, N.; Beever, A.; Owens, J.; Sathananthan, A.; Singh, P.; Kolloli, A.; Subbian, S.; Venketaraman, V Everolimus-induced effector mechanism in macrophages and survivability of Erdman, CD1551 and HN878 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Biomolecular Concepts. 2021. 12: 46-54 https://doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2021-0006 (corresponding author).
    • Zhong, W.; Shahbaz, O.; Teskey, G.; Beever, A.; Kachour, N.; Venketaraman, V.; Darmani, N. Mechanisms of nausea and vomiting: Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in intracellular emetic signaling systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5797. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115797 (corresponding author).
    • Amin, A.; Vartanian, A.; Yegiazaryan, A.; Al-Kassir, A.L.; Venketaraman, V. Review of the Effectiveness of Various Adjuvant Therapies in Treating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2021, 13, 821-834. https://doi.org/10.3390/idr13030074 (corresponding author).
    • Cao, R.; Kolloli, A.; Kumar, R.; Owens, J.; Sasaninia, K.; Vaughn, C.; Singh, M.; Truong, E.; Kachour, N.; Beever, A.; Khamas, W.; Subbian, S.; Venketaraman, V. Effects of Glutathione Diminishment on the Immune Responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8274. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178274 (corresponding author).
    • Munjal, S.; Munjal, S.; Gao, J.; Venketaraman, V. Exploring Potential COPD Immunosuppression Pathways Causing Increased Susceptibility for MAC Infections among COPD Patients. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 619-630. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11030077 (corresponding author).
    • Khatchadourian, C.; Sisliyan, C.; Nguyen, K.; Poladian, N.; Tian, Q.; Tamjidi, F.; Luong, B.; Singh, M.; Robison, J.; Venketaraman, V. Hyperlipidemia and Obesity’s Role in Immune Dysregulation Underlying the Severity of COVID-19 Infection. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 694-707. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11040085 (corresponding author).
    • Shiehzadegan S, Alaghemand N, Fox M, Venketaraman V. Analysis of the Delta Variant B.1.617.2 COVID-19. Clin Pract. 2021 Oct 21;11(4):778-784. doi: 10.3390/clinpract11040093. (corresponding author).
    • Rangchaikul P, Venketaraman V. SARS-CoV-2 and the Immune Response in Pregnancy with Delta Variant Considerations. Infect Dis Rep. 2021. Nov 30;13(4):993-1008. doi: 10.3390/idr13040091 (corresponding author).
    • Amin A, Vartanian A, Poladian N, Voloshko A, Yegiazaryan A, Al-Kassir AL, Venketaraman V. Root Causes of Fungal Coinfections in COVID-19 Infected Patients. Infect Dis Rep. 2021. Dec 4;13(4):1018-1035. doi: 10.3390/idr13040093 (corresponding author).

    Invited Talks

    • Invited speaker at the Pharmaceutical Sciences Section of the AAAS-Pacific Division symposia"Adjunctive therapy for tuberculosis" June 13, 2018
    • Distiguished speaker at the 14th International Conference on Oxidative Stress Reduction, Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidants held in Paris, France, June 12-13, 2014. "HIV infection and oxidative stress focusing on the beneficial effects of glutathione in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection"
    • National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis, Chennai, India. "An overview of host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection". Sept. 18, 2013
    • Global Health Week conducted at Western University of Health Sciences, CA, “Introduction and pathogenesis of HIV and TB ". April, 2013
    • EPS International Global Infectious diseases Conference, Shanghai, China, September 2010
    • Southern California Academy of Sciences, Cal State-LA, May 2010
    • Research day, Western University of Health Sciences, November 2009
    • College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, June 2009
    • University of Laverne, November 2008

    Additional publications/articles