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Dr. Venketaraman’s laboratory studies tuberculosis especially in the context of HIV infection and type 2 diabetes. The major research focus of the lab is to characterize the host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by conducting both preclinical studies and clinical trials. The laboratory’s long-term goal is to develop host-directed therapies that can be given as adjunctive treatment for tuberculosis.

  • Research Areas

    Preclinical studies:

    Dr. Venketaraman’s laboratory has successfully developed in vitro granulomas using peripheral blood immune cells from healthy subjects and individuals with diabetes. Using these in vitro granulomas, Dr. Venketaraman’s lab investigates the host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection within this uniquely regulated environment (Islamoglu et al; 2018, Teskey et al; 2018, Cao et al; 2019).

    With the recent NIH-funding (1R15HL143545-01A1), Dr. Venketaraman’s laboratory will conduct in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection studies in various strains of mice to understand the effects of diabetes in diminishing the immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the respiratory tract.

     

    Clinical trials:

    Dr. Venketaraman’s laboratory had previously conducted two clinical trials in participants with HIV infection and those with AIDS. The study findings indicated that restoring the levels of glutathione resulted in redox balance and regulated cytokine production thereby favoring improved immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (Ly et al; 2015; Valdivia et al; 2017).

    Currently his laboratory is conducting a clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes to test the effects of redox homeostasis restoration in augmenting the host immune responses. These studies are being supported by Your Energy Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

    Interesting facts about tuberculosis:

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered as one of the oldest documented infectious disease in the world and a major global health problem. Every year 2 million people die because of tuberculosis. Approximately, 10 million new active cases of active tuberculosis are reported every year worldwide. It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and this condition is called Latent tuberculosis infection. Individuals with HIV infection and people with type2 diabetes are increasingly susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Individuals with active tuberculosis are treated with combination of four different antibiotics for six to nine months. Complete cure of the disease is dependent on the patient’s compliance to the treatment. Non-compliance will not only affect the cure rates but can also increase the risks for the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which are difficult to treat.

    For complete list of publications please visit the PubMed link below:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=venketaraman+v

    Funding: NIH (NHLBI) 1R15HL143545-01A1 -2019-2022 Your Energy Systems- 2009-2021

  • Publications

    2020:

    • Gyurjian K and Venketaraman V. Thyroid Hormone Resistant Syndrome. Medical Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 2020. 13 (1):7-11(corresponding author).
    • Ashley D, Hernandez J, Cao R, To K, Yegiazaryan A, Abrahem R, Nguyen T, Owens J, Lambros MP, Subbian S, Venketaraman V. Antimycobacterial Effects of Everolimus in human granuloma model. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. Jun 29;9(7): E2043 (corresponding author).
    • To K, Cao R, Yegiazaryan A, Owens J, Venketaraman V. General overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9. 2541 (corresponding author).
    • Hernandez J, Ashley D, Cao R, Abrahem R, Nguyen T, To K, Yegiazaryan A, Akinwale AD, Tiwari RK, Venketaraman V. Effects of cyclic peptide (R4W4) in improving the ability of first-line antibiotics to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside in vitro human granulomas. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020. 11. 1677 (corresponding author).
    • Abrahem R, Chiang E, Haquang J, Nham A, Ting, Y-S, Venketaraman V. The role of dendritic cells in effective host immune response. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9(8), 2661 (corresponding author).
    • Venketaraman V. Recent Advances in Mycobacterial Research.  Clin. Med.20209, 2650 (corresponding author).
    • Singh M, Vaughn C, Sasaninia K, Yeh C, Mehta D, Abukhieran I, Venketaraman V. Understanding the relationship between glutathione, TGF-b and Vitamin D in combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. 9, 2757 (corresponding author).
    • Nguyen H, Gazy N, Venketaraman V. A role of intracellular toll like receptors (3, 7, and 9) in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and co-infected with HIV. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 21.6148 (corresponding author).
    • Arshad A, Dayal S, Gadhe R, Mawley A, Shin K, Tellez D, Phan P, Venketaraman V. Analysis of Tuberculosis Meningitis Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 9, 2962 (corresponding author).
    • Guloyan V, Organesian B, Baghdasaryan N, Yeh C, Singh M, Guilford F, Ting Y-S, Venketaraman V. Glutathione Supplementation As An Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19. 2020. 9, 914 (corresponding author).
    • Wong, K.; Nguyen, J.; Blair, L.; Banjanin, M.; Grewal, B.; Bowman, S.; Boyd, H.; Gerstner, G.; Cho, H.J.; Panfilov, D.; Tam, C.K.; Aguilar, D.; Venketaraman, V. Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Co-Infection. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3575 (corresponding author).

    2019:

    • Cerni S, Shafer D, To K, Venketaraman V. Investigating the role of Everolimus in mTOR Inhibition and Autophagy Promotion as a Potential Host-Directed Therapeutic Target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Feb 11;8(2). pii: E232. (corresponding author).
    • Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Gutierrez M, Salaiz O, Munjal S, Fraix MP, Sathananthan A, Nieman DC, Venketaraman V. Flavonoid Mixture Inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosisSurvival and Infectivity. 2019. Feb 28;24(5). pii: E851 (corresponding author).
    • Orenstein R, Covasa M, Venketaraman V. Symbiosis: Ecology of the human microbiome. In Seffinger M (eds) Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine. Wolters Kluwer. 2019, chapter 16:362-374.
    • Cao R, Islamoglu H, Teskey G, Gyurijian K, Abrahem R, Onajole OK, Lun S, Bishai W, Kozikowski AP, Fraix MP, Sathananthan A, Zhong L, Stec J, Venketaraman V. The preclinical candidate indole-2-carboxamide improves immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in healthy subjects and individuals with type 2 diabetes. International Microbiology. 2019. June 19th  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-019-00086-0. Springer Nature (corresponding author).
    • Dara Y, Volcani D, Shah K, Shin K, Venketaraman V. Potentials of host-directed therapies in tuberculosis management. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Aug 3;8(8). pii: E1166. doi: 10.3390/jcm8081166 (corresponding author).
    • Abrahem R, Cao R, Robinson B, Munjal S, Cho T, To K, Ashley D, Hernandez J, Nguyen T, Teskey G, Venketaraman V. Elucidating the efficacy of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination in conjunction with first line antibiotics and liposomal glutathione. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019. Sep 27;8(10). pii: E1556. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101556. (corresponding author).

     

    2018:

    • Tudela EV, Singh M, and Venketaraman V. 2017. Glutathione, Immunity, and Infection. Chapter 22. In Nutrition, Immunity and Infection. Francis and Taylor Publishers (corresponding author).
    • Alejandre A, Gonzalez L, Hussain P, Ly J, Muthiah A, Saing T, Valdivia A, and Venketaraman V. Glutathione supplementation, antioxidant effects and HIV. 2018. Chapter 12. In HIV/AIDS Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants, Elsevier Publishers (corresponding author).
    • Dong J, Muthiah A, Hussain P, Yoshida M and Venketaraman V. Selenium supplementation, Antioxidant effects, and Immune restorative effects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus. 2018. Chapter 17. In HIV/AIDS Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants. Elsevier Publishers (corresponding author).
    • Teskey G, Cao R, Cemi S, Chang L, Fahmy K, Geiger J, Halbert T, Henry D, Hung F, Islamoglu H, Venketaraman V. Modern Examination of Tuberculosis-Diabetes Comorbidity. Medical Research Archives. 2017. 5 (12): 2-19. (corresponding author).
    • Islamoglu H, Cao R, Teskey G, Gyurijian K, Lucar S, Fraix M, Sathananthan A, Venketaraman V. Effects of Readisorb L-GSH in altering granulomatous responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Journal of Clinical Medicine.2018. 7 (3) 1-24 (corresponding author).
    • Jain, SK, Tobin D, Tucker EW, Venketaraman V, Ordonez AA, Jayashankar L, Siddiqi OK, Hammoud DA, Prasadarao NV, Sandor M, Haffner R, Fabry Z. Tuberculous Meningitis: A Roadmap for Advancing Basic and Translational Research. Nature Immunology, 2018. Jun;19(6):521-525.
    • Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurijian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, Martinez A, Paredes E, Salaiz O, Robinson B, Venketaraman V. Glutathione as a marker for human disease. Advances in Clinical Chemistry. 2018. Volume 87. 141-159. (corresponding author).
    • Teskey G, Cato C, Hernandez J, Kaur P, Koury J, Lucero M, Tran A, and Venketaraman V. Host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. In Venketaraman V (eds) Understanding the host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Springer Nature. 2018, chapter 5:99-110 (corresponding author).
    • Brazil J, and Venketaraman V. Cigarette Smoking and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis. In Venketaraman V (eds) Understanding the host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Springer Nature. 2018, chapter 6:111-126 (corresponding author).
    • Teskey G, Cao R, Islamoglu H Medina A, Prasad C, Prasad R, Sathananthan A, Fraix M, Subbian S, Zhong L, Venketaraman V. The Synergistic Effects of the Glutathione Precursor, NAC and First-Line Antibiotics in the Granulomatous Response Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018. 9. 2069 (corresponding author).
    • Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Abrahem R, Gyurijian K, Zhong L, Venketaraman V. Characterizing the Effects of Glutathione as an Immunoadjuvant in the Treatment of Tuberculosis. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy. 2018. 62 (11) pii: e01132-18 (corresponding author).
    • Robinson B, Munjal S, D’Agostino J, Venketaraman V. Liposomal glutathione as a potential therapeutic agent to control HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. European Medical Journal. 2018. 3 [4] 62-69 (corresponding author).

     

    2017

    • Warren E, Teskey G, and Venketaraman V. Effector mechanisms of neutrophils within the innate immune system in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2017. 7:6 (2). PMID:28178208 (corresponding author).
    • Valdivia A, Ly J, Gonzalez L, Hussain P, Saing T, Islamoglu H, Pearce D, Ochoa C, and Venketaraman V. Restoring cytokine balance in HIV positive individuals with low CD4 T cell counts. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2017. Sep;33(9):905-918. PMID:28398068 (corresponding author).

     

    2016:

    • Venketaraman V. Editorial: Causes for increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis – a close view of the immune system. Front. Immunol. 2015. 6:545 (corresponding author-impact factor).
    • Saing, T; Lagman, N; Castrillon, J; Gutierrez, E; Guilford, F; and Venketaraman V. Analysis of Glutathione levels in the Brain tissue samples from HIV-Positive Individuals and subject with Alzheimer’s disease and its implication in the pathophysiology of the disease process. BBA Clinical. 6:38-44. PMID: 27335804 (corresponding author).
    • Ly, J; Morris, D; Lagman, M; Ng, C; Anderson, S; Daliva, J; Muwanas, N; Tarash, I; Ochoa, C; Sathananthan, A. and Venketaraman V. Complement Receptor Expression in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. 2016. 11(2):174-182. PMID: 27291248 (corresponding author).
    • Saing, T; Valdivia, A; Hussain, P; Ly, J; Gonzalez L; Guilford, F; Pearce, D and Venketaraman V. Data on pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individual. Data in Brief. 2016. 8:1044-7. PMID:27508262 (corresponding author).

     

     

     

    2015

    • Minette, L; Ly, J; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris D, Chi, P; Ochoa, C; Sathananthan, A; Venketaraman, V. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes. PLoS One. 2015.10(3): e0118436 (corresponding author).
    • Ly, J; Minette, L; Saing, T; Singh, M; Tudela, E; Morris D, Anderson J; Daliva J; Ochoa, C; Patel, N; Pearce D and Venketaraman, V. Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores Appropriate Cytokine Response to Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV Infected Individuals. Journal of Interferon and cytokine research. 35(11):875-87 (corresponding author).
    • VenketaramanV, Kaushal D, Saviola B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:857598 (corresponding author).
    • Allen M, Bailey C, Cahatol I, Dodge L, Yim J, Kassissa C, Luong J, Kasko S and Venketaraman V. Mechanisms of control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NK cells: role of glutathione. Front Immunol. 2015. 6:508 (corresponding author-impact factor).

     

    2014:

    • Tudela, EV; Singh MK; Lagman, M; Ly, J, Patel N, Ochoa C, and Venketaraman, V. Cytokine Levels in Plasma Samples of Individuals with HIV Infection. Austin Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1 (1) 5. (corresponding author).
    • Morris D, Ly J, Chi PT, Daliva J, Nguyen T, Soofer C, Chen YC, Lagman M, Venketaraman Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV. Front Pharmacol. 2014. 11;5:73. (corresponding author).
    • Saing T and Venketaraman V. Apolipoprotein E downregulates the production of IL-1 in individuals with HIV Infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 8 (1) 34-36 (corresponding author).

     

    2013:

    • Morris D, Khurasany M, Nyugen T, Kim J, Guilford F, Mehta R, Saviola B, Gray D and Venketaraman V. Glutathione and infection.  Biochimica et Biophysica Acta- General Subjects2013. 1830 (5):3329-49 (corresponding author).
    • Morris D, Guerra C, Khurasany M, Guilford F, Saviola B, Huang Y and Venketaraman V. Glutathione supplementation improves macrophage functions in HIV.   Journal of Interferon and cytokine research.   33(5)270-9 (corresponding author).
    • Morris D, Gonzalez B, Khurasany M, Kassissa C, Luong J, Kasko S, Pandya S, Chu M, Chi A, Bui Q, Guerra C, Chan J and Venketaraman V. Characterization of dendritic cell and regulatory T cell functions against M. tb infecti Biomedical Research International. 2013 (2013): 402827 (corresponding author).
    • Morris, D; Nguyen, T; Kim, J; Kassissa, J; Luong, J; Pandya, S; Chu, M; Chi, A; Ly, J; Lagman, M and Venketaraman, V. An Elucidation of neutrophil functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical and developmental immunology. 2013 (2013): 959650. (corresponding author).
    • Lagman, M; Ly, J; and Venketaraman, V. Glutathione protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection- a possible adjunctive therapy for individuals with HIV infection. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 2013. 7(1) 29-32 (corresponding author).
    • Saviola, B and Venketaraman, V. An overview on select agents. The Journal of Southern California Clinicians. 2013. 7(1) 24-28 (corresponding author).

     

    For complete list of publications please visit the PubMed link below:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=venketaraman+v

     

    Funding:

    NIH (NHLBI) 1R15HL143545-01A1 -2019-2022

    Your Energy Systems

     

     

     

     

  • Lab Members

     

    Vishwanath Venketaraman, PhD
    Principal Investigator
    Microbiology/Immunology
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences
    College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-706-3736
    Fax: 909-469-5698
    vvenketaraman@westernu.edu

     

    Ruoqiong Cao, MS
    Lab Manager
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences
    College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    rcao@westernu.edu

     

     

     
    Mohkam Singh
    Graduate Student
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    Email: mohkam.singh@westernu.edu

     
    Kayvan Sasaninia
    Graduate Student

    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    kayvan.sasaninia@westernu.edu

     
    Charles Vaughn

    Graduate Student
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    charles.vaughn@westernu.edu

     
    Edward Truong

    Graduate Student
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    edward.truong@westernu.edu

     
    Abrianna Beever

    Graduate Student
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    abrianna.zorzi@westernu.edu

     
    Nala Kachour

    Graduate Student
    Western University of Health Sciences
    309 E Second Street
    Pomona, CA 91766-1854
    Phone: 909-469-6621
    nala.kachour@westernu.edu

  • VISHWANATH VENKETARAMAN, PhD

    Portrait of

    VISHWANATH VENKETARAMAN, PhD

    College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

    Professor of Microbiology/Immunology

    909-706-3736

    vvenketaraman@westernu.edu